Abbreviation List

The following symbols and abbreviations are used in Britannica.

 

Symbols   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K  L  M  N  O  P  Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   

 

Symbols

 

$ dollar (of any currency area)

ú pound (of any currency area)

 

A

 

A.B. : Bachelor of Arts (Latin Artium Baccalaureus); Army Base

A.C.T. : Australian Capital Territory

A.F.B. : Air Force Base

A.F.S. : Air Force Station

A.M. : Master of Arts (Latin Artium Magister)

A.S. : Air Station

A.S.S.R.: Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

abbrev. : abbreviation

AC : alternating current

Ac : actinium

acct. : accounting

ACP : African, Caribbean, and Pacific (Lome IV) convention

act. : actor, actress

AD : in the year of our Lord (Latin anno Domini )

ADB : Asian Development Bank

adj.gen. : adjutant general

adm. : admiral

admin. : administration, administrative

adv. : advertising

Aeg.S. : Aegean Sea

aero. : aeronautics, aeronautical

Af. : Africa, African

Afg. : Afghanistan, Afghani

AG : Limited-liability Company (German Aktiengesellschaft)

Ag : silver (Latin argentum)

agri. : agriculture, agriculturist, agricultural

AH: in the year of the hijrah (hegira), or Muslim era (Latin anno Hegirae)

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Al: aluminum, aluminium

Ala. : Alabama

Alb. : Albania, Albanian

Alg. : Algeria, Algerian

Alsk. : Alaska, Alaskan

Alta. : Alberta

AM : amplitude modulation

AM : before noon (Latin ante meridiem)

Am. : American

Am.Sam. : American Samoa

Amer. : American

anat. : anatomy

anc. : ancient

And. : Andorra, Andorran

And.Is. : Andaman Islands

Ang. : Angola, Angolese

Ant. : Antigua, Antiguan

Ant.B. : Antigua and Barbuda

Antarc. : Antarctica

anthol. : anthology, anthologist

anthro. : anthropology, anthropologist, anthropological

APEC : Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council

Ar: argon

Arab. : Arabia, Arabic, Arabian

arch. : architecture, architect, architectural

archae. : archaeology, archaeologist, archaeological

archbp. : archbishop

archip. : archipelago

Arct. : Arctic

Arg. : Argentina, Argentine

arith. : arithmetic

Ariz. : Arizona

Ark. : Arkansas

Arm. : Armenia, Armenian

Arpt. : Airport

arrond. : arrondissement

art. : artist

As : arsenic

As. : Asia, Asiatic, Asian

Assoc. : Association

astrol. : astrology, astrologer

astron. : astronomy, astronomer, astronomical

astrophys. : astrophysics, astrophysicist, astrophysical

At : astatine

Atl.O. : Atlantic Ocean

Au : gold (Latin aurum)

au. : author

Aug. : August

Aus. : Austria, Austrian

Austl. : Australia

Austr. : Australia, Australian

aut.area: autonomous area

Av. : Avenida (Spanish:"Avenue'')

Ave. : Avenue

avg. : average

Azer. : Azerbaijan

 

B

 

b. : born

B.A. : Bachelor of Arts

B.C. : British Columbia

B.Ed. : Bachelor of Education

B.S., B.Sc. : Bachelor of Science

B : boron

Ba : barium

Babyl. : Babylonia, Babylonian

bac. : bacteriology, bacteriologist

Bah. : The Bahamas, Bahamian

Bahr. : Bahrain, Bahrainian

Bal.Is. : Balearic Islands

Bangl., Bangla. : Bangladesh, Bangladeshi

Barb. : Barbados, Barbadian

bart. : baronet

Bav. : Bavaria, Bavarian

BC : before Christ

BCE : before the Common Era, or Christian era

Be : beryllium

Beds. : Bedfordshire

Bela. : Belarus

Belg. : Belgium, Belgian

Ber. : Bermuda, Bermudan

Berks. : Berkshire

bev. : beverage

Bfld. : Battlefield

Bge. : Bridge

Bhut. : Bhutan, Bhutanese, Bhutani

Bi : bismuth

bibl. : biblical

biblio. : bibliography, bibliographer

biochem. : biochemistry, biochemist

biog. : biography, biographer

biogeog. : biogeography

biol. : biology, biologist, biological

Bk : berkelium

bldg. : building

Bldg. : Building

Bldgs. : Buildings

Blvd. : Boulevard

Bohem. : Bohemia, Bohemian

Bol. : Bolivia, Bolivian

boro. : borough

Bos.-Her. : Bosnia and Hercegovina

bot. : botany, botanist, botanical

Bots. : Botswana (country and people)

BP : before the present

bp. : bishop

Br : bromine

Br. : Britain, British

Braz. : Brazil, Brazilian

brig.gen. : brigadier general

Brit. : British

Brun. : Brunei

Bucks. : Buckinghamshire

Bulg. : Bulgaria, Bulgarian

Bur. : Burma, Burmese

Burk. : Burkina Faso

Buru. : Burundi, Burundian

bus. : business

Byz. : Byzantium, Byzantine

 

C

 

C : carbon; Celsius

C. : Cape

c. : about, approximately (Latin circa )

C.A.R. : Central African Republic

C.Am. : Central America

C.d'I. : C˘te d'Ivoire

C.I. : C˘te d'Ivoire

c.i.f. : cost, insurance, and freight

C.R. : Costa Rica, Costa Rican

C.Rica : Costa Rica

C.Verde : Cape Verde

Ca : calcium

CACM : Central American Common Market

Calif. : California

Camb. : Cambodia, Cambodian

Cambs. : Cambridgeshire

Camer. : Cameroon, Cameroons

Can. : Canada, Canadian

Can.Is. : Canary Islands

card. : cardinal

Carib. : Caribbean

caric. : caricature, caricaturist

Caricom: Caribbean Community and Common Market

cartog. : cartography, cartographer

Cath. : Catholicism, Catholic

cath. : cathedral

Cauc. : Caucasia, Caucasus

Cay.Is. : Cayman Islands

Cb : columbium

Cd: cadmium

CE: Christian Era, Common Era

Ce: cerium

Celt. : Celtic

Cent. : Central

cent. : century

Cent.Af.Rep. : Central African Republic

Cf: californium

cf. : compare (Latin confer)

CFA: Communaute Fin-ere Africaine

CFP: Comptoirs Franšaises du Pacifique

cg: centigram(s)

chan. : channel

Chan.Is. : Channel Islands

chem. : chemistry, chemist, chemical

Ches. : Cheshire

Chil. : Chilean

Chin. : Chinese

chron. : chronology

Cia. : Company (Italian Compagnia; Portuguese Companhia; Spanish Compa˝ia)

Cie. : Company (French Compagnie)

CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States

Cl: chlorine

class. : classification, classical

cler. : clergyman

Cleve. : Cleveland (English county)

climat. : climatological, climatologist, climatology

CM: Council of Ministers

Cm: curium

cm: centimetre(s)

CMSA: consolidated metropolitan statistical area

Co: cobalt

Co. : Company, County

co. : company, county

Col. : Colonel

col(s). : column(s)

coll. : college; collector, collection

Colo. : Colorado

Colom. : Colombia, Colombian

com. : commerce, commercial; commission; committee; commune

Com. : Comoros

comdr. : commander

comdt. : commandant

commo. : commodore

commu. : communications

commun. : communications

comp. : composer

comp.sci. : computer science

Con.B. : Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville), Congolese

Con.K. : Congo, Democratic Republic of (Kinshasa), Congolese

Conn. : Connecticut

const. : construction

Cord. : Cordillera

Corn. : Cornwall

Corp. : Corporation

cos: cosine

cot: cotangent

CPI: consumer price index

Cr: chromium

crit. : critic, criticism

Cro. : Croatia

crystall. : crystallography, crystallographer

CS: Council of State

Cs: cesium

csc: cosecant

Cu: copper (Latin cuprum)

CUSA: Customs Union of Southern Africa

Cyp. : Cyprus, Cypriot

Cz.Rep. : Czech Republic

Czech. : Czechoslovakia

 

D

 

d. : died

DC: direct current

D.C. : District of Columbia

D.F. : Federal District (Spanish Distrito Federal)

D.Litt. : Doctor of Letters (Latin Doctor Litterarum)

Dan. : Danish

Dec. : December

Del. : Delaware

Dem., dem. : democratic

Den. : Denmark

Dept. : Department

dept. : department, dÚpartement, departamento

Derby. : Derbyshire

dermatol. : dermatology, dermatologist

dial. : dialect

dict. : dictionary

dipl. : diplomat, diplomacy

dir. : director

dist. : district

div. : division

Djib. : Djibouti

Dom. : Dominica

dom. : dominion

Dom.Rep. : Dominican Republic

Dr., dr. : doctor; drive

dram. : dramatist

Drav. : Dravidian

Du. : Dutch

Dy: dysprosium

 

E

 

E. : East, Eastern

E.Af. : East Africa

e.g. : for example (Latin exempli gratia)

E.Ger. : East Germany

E.Susx. : East Sussex

Ec. : Ecuador, Ecuadorian

EC: European Communities

eccl. : ecclesiastical, ecclesiast

econ. : economics, economist

ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States

Ecua. : Ecuador

Ed. : Britannica editor, or editors

ed. : edited; edition; editor

eds. : editors

educ. : education, educator

EEC: European Economic Community

Egy. : Egypt, Egyptian

El Sal. : El Salvador

El Salv. : El Salvador

elec. : electricity, electric, electrical, electronics

embryol. : embryology

emp. : empire, emperor, empress

encyc. : encyclopedia

Eng. : England; English

engin. : engineering, engineer

engr. : engraving, engraver

entom. : entomology, entomologist

Eq.Guin. : Equatorial Guinea

Equat.Guin. : Equatorial Guinea

Er: erbium

Es: einsteinium

est. : estimate, estimated; estuary

Est. : Estonia, Estonian

et al. : and others (Latin et alli, or aliae)

et seq. : and following page(s) (Latin et sequens, sequentese, or sequentia)

etc. : and so forth (Latin et cetera)

Eth. : Ethiopia, Ethiopian

ethnol. : ethnology, ethnologist

EU: The European Union

Eu: europium

Eur. : Europe, European

exec. : executive

expl. : explorer

Expwy. : Expressway

 

F

 

f. : father

f.o.b. : free on board

F: Fahrenheit; fluorine

Falk.Is. : Falkland Islands, Falklander

fam. : family

FAO: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

FC: Federal Council

Fe: iron (Latin ferrum)

Feb.: February

Fed., fed.: federation, federal

ff. : and following pages

Fig. : Figure

Fili. : Filipino (native of the Philippines)

Fin. : Finland, Finnish

fin. : finance

fl. : flourished (Latin floruit)

Fla. : Florida

Flem. : Flemish

FM: frequency modulation

Fm: fermium

fol. : following

Found., found. : foundation

Fr: francium

Fr. : France, French

Fr.Guia. : French Guiana

Fr.Poly. : French Polynesia

Ft., ft. : fort

 

G

 

g: gram(s)

Ga: gallium

Ga. : Georgia

Gab. : Gabon, Gabonese

Gam. : Gambia, Gambian

Gd: gadolinium

GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council

GDP: gross domestic product

Ge: germanium

gen. : general

geneal. : genealogy, genealogist, genealogical

genet. : genetics, geneticist

Geo. : Georgia (country)

geog. : geography, geographer, geographical

geol. : geology, geologist, geological

geom. : geometry

geophys. : geophysics, geophysical, geophysicist

Ger. : Germany, German

GG: Governor-General

Gib. : Gibraltar

Glos. : Gloucestershire

GmbH: Company with Limited Liability (German Gesellschaft mit beschrńnkter Haftung)

GNP: gross national product

gov. : governor

govt. : government

GPC: General People's Committee

Gr. : Greece, Greek

gram. : grammar, grammarian

Green. : Greenland

Gren. : Grenada

Gt.Br. : Great Britain

Gtr.London: Greater London

Gtr.Mches. : Greater Manchester

Guad. : Guadeloupe

Guat. : Guatemala, Guatemalan

Guin. : Guinea, Guinean

Guin.Bis. : Guinea-Bissau

Guy. : Guyana, Guyanan

 

H

 

H: hydrogen

h: hour(s)

h. : husband

H.K. : Hong Kong

Ha: hahnium

Hants. : Hampshire

Haw. : Hawaii, Hawaiian

Hbr. : Harbour

He: helium

Heb. : Hebrew

her. : heraldry

Here.&Worc. : Hereford and Worcester

Herts. : Hertfordshire

Hf: hafnium

Hg: mercury (Latin hydrargyrum)

hist. : history, historian, historical

HMS: His, or Her, Majesty's Ship, or Service

Ho: holmium

Holl. : Holland

Hon. : Honourable

Hond. : Honduras, Honduran

hort. : horticulture, horticulturist

Hosp. : Hospital

hts. : heights

Humbs. : Humberside

Hung. : Hungary, Hungarian

Hwy. : Highway

 

I

 

I: iodine

I. : Island

I-ADB: Inter-American Development Bank

I.E. : Indo-European

i.e. : that is (Latin id est)

I.of Man: Isle of Man

I.of Wight, or I.O.W. : Isle of Wight

Ia. : Iowa

IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency

ibid. : in the same place (Latin ibidem)

IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Ice. : Iceland, Icelandic

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization

ICJ: International Court of Justice

Ida. : Idaho

IDA: International Development Association

IDB: Islamic Development Bank

IFC: International Finance Corporation

Ill. : Illinois

illus. : illustration

ILO: International Labour Organization

IMF: International Monetary Fund

IMO: International Maritime Organization

In: indium

Inc. : Incorporated

incl. : including

Ind. Res. : Indian Reservation

Ind. : Indiana

ind. : independent

Ind.O. : Indian Ocean

Indon. : Indonesia, Indonesian

indus. : industry, industrialist, industrial

Inst., inst. : institute, institution

instru. : instrument

internat. : international

Intl. : International

inv. : inventor

Ir: iridium

Ire. : Ireland

Is., is., isl(s). : island, islands

Isr. : Israel, Israeli

isth. : isthmus

It. : Italy, Italian

ITU: International Telecommunication Union

 

J

 

Jam. : Jamaica, Jamaican

Jan. : January

Jor. : Jordan, Jordanian

journ. : journal, journalist, journalism

Jr. : Junior

jur. : jurist

 

K

 

K: potassium (Latin kalium); Kelvin; K÷chel catalog number

k. : king

Kamp. : Kampuchea, Kampuchean

Kan. : Kansas

Kazakh. : Kazakhstan

Ken. : Kenya, Kenyan

KG: Limited Partnership (German Kommandit Gesellschaft)

kg: kilogram

king. : kingdom

Kiri. : Kiribati

Kitts/N. : Saint Kitts and Nevis

KK: Limited-liability Company (Japanese Kabushiki Kaisha)

km: kilometre(s)

Kor. : Korea, Korean

Kr: krypton

Kuw. : Kuwait, Kuwaiti

Ky. : Kentucky

Kyrgyz. : Kyrgyzstan

 

L

 

L. : Lake

l. : lake; lane

La: lanthanum

La. : Louisiana

Lab. : Labrador, Labradorian

Lancs. : Lancashire

lang. : language

LAS: League of Arab States

Lat. : Latin

Lat.Am. : Latin America, Latin American

law. : lawyer

lb. : pound(s)

Leb. : Lebanon, Lebanese

Lee.Is. : Leeward Islands

leg. : legend, legendary; legislation

Leic. : Leicestershire

Les., Leso. : Lesotho

Lib. : Liberia, Liberian

libn. : librarian

Liech. : Liechtenstein

lieut. : lieutenant

Lincs. : Lincolnshire

ling. : linguistics, linguist

lit. : literature, literary

Lith. : Lithuania, Lithuanian

litho. : lithography, lithographer

LL.B. : Bachelor of Laws (Latin Legum Baccalaureus)

LL.D. : Doctor of Laws (Latin Legum Doctor)

log: logarithm

Lr: lawrencium

Ltd. : Limited

Lu: lutetium

Lucia: Saint Lucia

Lux., Luxem. : Luxembourg, Luxembourgian

 

M

 

m: metre(s)

m. : married

MA: metropolitan area

M.A. : Master of Arts

M.D. : Doctor of Medicine (Latin Medicinae Doctor)

M.Glam. : Mid Glamorgan

M.S., M.Sc. : Master of Science

Maced. : Macedonia, Macedonian

Mad., Madag. : Madagascar, Madagascan

mag. : magazine

maj. : major

Mal., Malay. : Malaysia, Malaysian

Malag.Rep. : Malagasy Republic

Mald. : Maldives, Maldivan

Man. : Manitoba

manag. : manager

Marsh.Is. : Marshall Islands

Mart. : Martinique, Martinican

Mass. : Massachusetts

math. : mathematics, mathematician, mathematical

Maurits. : Mauritius

mbH: Limited; with Limited Liability (German mit beschrńnkter Haftung)

Md. : Maryland

Me. : Maine

meas. : measure, measurement

mech. : mechanics

med. : medicine, medical

Medit. : Mediterranean

Mem. : Memorial

mer. : merchant

Mers. : Merseyside

Mesop. : Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian

met. : metallurgy, metallurgist, metallurgical

meteorol. : meteorology, meteorologist

Mex. : Mexico, Mexican

mfr. : manufacture, manufacturer

Mg: magnesium

mg: milligram(s)

Mich. : Michigan

microbiol. : microbiology, microbiologist

Micron. : Micronesia

Mil., mil. : military

min: minute(s)

min. : mineral, mining, mineralogist, mineralogical

minis. : minister

Minn. : Minnesota

Miss. : Mississippi

Mlle: Mademoiselle

mm: millimetre(s)

Mme: Madame

Mn: manganese

Mo: molybdenum

Mo. : Missouri

mo. : month(s)

mod. : modern

Moldv. : Moldova

Mon. : Monaco, Monacan, Monagasque

Mon., mon. : monument

Mong. : Mongolia, Mongolian

Mont. : Montana

Monts. : Montserrat

Mor. : Morocco, Moroccan

Moz., Mozam. : Mozambique, Mozambican

MP: member of Parliament

Mr. : Mister

Mrs. : "Missus''

ms(s). : manuscript(s)

MSA: metropolitan statistical area

Mt., Mtn., Mts., mt., mts. : Mount, mount(s), mountain(s)

Mtania. : Mauritania

mun. : municipality

Mus. : Museum

mus. : music, musician, musical

MV: Motor Vessel

Myan. : Myanmar

myth. : mythology, mythological

 

N

 

N: nitrogen; north

N. : North, Northern

n.a. : not available (in text)

N.Af. : North Africa

N.Am. : North America

N.B. : New Brunswick; Naval Base

N.C. : North Carolina

N.Cal. : New Caledonia

N.Dak., or N.D. : North Dakota

n.e.s. : not elsewhere specified

N.G. : New Guinea

N.H. : New Hampshire

N.Ire. : Northern Ireland

N.J. : New Jersey

N.Kor. : North Korea

N.Mex., or N.M. : New Mexico

N.S. : New Style (calendar)

N.S. : Nova Scotia

N.S.W. : New South Wales

N.Terr. : Northern Territory (Australia)

N.W.Terr. : Northwest Territories (Canada)

N.Y. : New York

N.Y.C. : New York City

N.Yorks. : North Yorkshire

N.Z. : New Zealand

NA: National Association

Na: sodium (Latin natrium)

Nam., Namib. : Namibia

Nat. Res. : Nature Reserve

nat. : naturalist

Natl. Pk. : National Park

Natl., natl. : national

naut. : nautical

nav. : naval

navig. : navigator

Nb: niobium

Nd: neodymium

NE: northeast

Ne: neon

Neb. : Nebraska

NECMA: New England county metropolitan area

Neth. : The Netherlands

Neth.Ant. : Netherlands Antilles

Nev. : Nevada

New Cal. : New Caledonia

news. : newspaper

Nfd. : Newfoundland

Ni: nickel

Nic. : Nicaragua, Nicaraguan

nick. : nickname

Nig. : Nigeria, Nigerian

NMP: net material product

No: nobelium

no. : number

Nor. : Norway, Norwegian

Norf. : Norfolk

Northants. : Northamptonshire

Northum. : Northumberland

Notts. : Nottinghamshire

Nov. : November

Np: neptunium

NS: Nuclear Ship

NV: Limited-liability Company (Dutch Naamloze Vennootschap)

NW: northwest

 

O

 

O: oxygen

O.S. : Old Style (calendar)

OAS: Organization of American States

OAU: Organization of African Unity

obl. : oblast

Oct. : October

OECS: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States

of. : officer

offi. : official

Okla. : Oklahoma

okr. : okrug

Ont. : Ontario

op. : opus

op.cit. : in the work cited (Latin opere, or opus, citato)

OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Ore. : Oregon

org(s). : organization(s)

Os: osmium

osteol. : osteology

osteop. : osteopathology, osteopath

Oxon. : Oxfordshire

 

P

 

p. : page

P.E.I. : Prince Edward Island

P.N.G. : Papua New Guinea

P.R. : Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican

P: phosphorus

Pa. : Pennsylvania

pA: Limited (Italian per Azioni)

Pa: protactinium

Pac.O. : Pacific Ocean

paint. : painting, painter

Pak. : Pakistan, Pakistani

Pal. : Palace

Pal. : Palestine, Palestinian

paleob. : paleobotany, paleobotanist

paleog. : paleogeography

paleon. : paleontology, paleontologist

Pan. : Panama, Panamanian

Pap.N.G. : Papua New Guinea, Papuan

Par., Para. : Paraguay, Paraguayan

parl. : parliament

passim to: references scattered between (or continues for duration of) pages cited

path. : pathology, pathologist

Pb: lead (Latin plumbum)

Pd: palladium

Pen. : Peninsula

penin. : peninsula

perf. : performed; performance

period. : periodical

Pers. : Persia, Persian

petrol. : petrology, petrologist

Ph.D. : Doctor of Philosophy (Latin Philosophiae Doctor)

pH: potential of hydrogen (acidity-alkalinity factor)

pharm. : pharmacy, pharmacist, pharmacology, pharmacologist

Phil. : Philippines

philan. : philanthropy, philanthropist

philol. : philology, philologist

philos. : philosophy, philosopher

phot. : photography, photographer

phys. : physics, physicist

physic. : physician

physiol. : physiology, physiologist, physiological

Pk. : Park; Peak

Pkwy. : Parkway

pl. : plural

Pl. : Place

Plat., plat. : plateau

PLC: Public Limited Company

PM: afternoon (Latin post meridiem)

Pm: promethium

PMSA: primary metropolitan statistical area

PNA: Palestine National Authority

Po: polonium

Pol. : Poland

Pol. : Poland, Polish

pol. : politics, politician, political

pol.sci. : political science

Poly. : Polynesia, Polynesian

pop. : population

Port. : Portugal, Portuguese

pos. : position

poss. : possession

pp. : pages

Pr: praseodymium

pr. : priest

pr.min. : prime minister

PRC: Provisional Ruling Council

preft. : prefecture

prelim. : preliminary (census)

pres. : president

print. : printing, printer

prof. : professor

Prot. : Protectorate; Protestant

Prov. Pk. : Provincial Park

Prov. : Province

prov. : province, provincial

pseud. : pseudonym, pseudonymous

psychol. : psychology, psychologist, psychological

Pt: platinum

Pt. : Point

pt. : point

ptg. : printing

Pu: plutonium

pub. : public; publication

pub. admin. : public administration

publ. : publisher

PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride

pvt. : private

 

Q

 

q. : queen

q.v. : which see (singular; Latin quod vide)

qq.v. : which see (plural; Latin quae vide)

Que. : Quebec, Quebecer, Quebecker

Queen., Queens., or Qld. : Queensland

 

R

 

R: Rankine

R. : River

R.I. : Rhode Island

R.R., r.r. : railroad

Ra: radium

Rb: rubidium

Rd., rd. : road

Re: rhenium

rear adm. : rear admiral

ref. : reference

reg. : region

rel. : religion, religious

rep. : representative; republic

Res. : Reservoir; Reservation

res. : reservoir

reserva. : reservation

resid. : residency

rev. : revised; revision

rev. : revolution, revolutionary

Rf: rutherfordium

Rh: rhodium

riv. : river

Rn: radon

Rom. : Romania

Rom. : Romania, Romanian

Ru: ruthenium

Russ. : Russia, Russian

Rw. : Rwanda, Rwand

ry. : railway

 

S

 

S: South; sulfur

s: second(s)

S., s. : Saint ( San, Santo, Sant' )

S. : South, Southern

S.Af. : South Africa, South African

S.Am. : South America, South American

S.Aus., S.Austr. : South Australia

S.C. : South Carolina

S.Dak., or S.D. : South Dakota

S.F.S.R. : Soviet Federated Socialist Republic

S.Glam. : South Glamorgan

S.Kor. : South Korea

S.L. : Sierra Leone

S.S.R. : Soviet Socialist Republic

S.TomÚ: SŃo TomÚ and PrÝncipe

S.Yorks. : South Yorkshire

SA: Limited-liability Company (French SociÚtÚ Anonyme; Italian SocietÓ An˛nima; Portuguese Sociedade Anˇnima; Spanish Sociedad Anˇnima)

Sam. : Samoa, Samoan

San Mar. : San Marino

Sask. : Saskatchewan

Saud.Ar., Saud.Arab. : Saudi Arabia, Saudi, Saudi Arabian

Sb: antimony (Latin stibium)

SC: State Council

Sc: scandium

Scand. : Scandinavia, Scandinavian

schol. : scholar

sci. : science, scientist, scientific

Scot. : Scotland, Scottish

SCSA: standard consolidated statistical area

sculp. : sculpture, sculptor

SDR: Special Drawing Right

SE: southeast

Se: selenium

sec: secant; second(s)

Sen., Seneg. : Senegal, Senegalese

sen. : senator

Sept. : September

Sey., Seych. : Seychelles

sgt. : sergeant

Shrops. : Shropshire

Si: silicon

Sib. : Siberia, Siberian

sin: sine

Sing. : Singapore, Singaporean

SITC: Standard International Trade Classification

SLORC: State Law and Order Restoration Council

Slvk. : Slovakia

Slvn. : Slovenia

Sm: samarium

Sn: tin (Latin stannum)

soc. : society, social; socialist

sociol. : sociology, sociologist, sociological

Sol.Is. : Solomon Islands

Som. : Somali, Somalia (Somali Republic), Somalian

Somer. : Somerset

Sov. : Soviet

Sp. : Spain, Spanish

SpA: Limited-liability Company (Italian SocietÓ per Azioni)

SPC: South Pacific Commission

spr(s). : spring(s)

Spr. : Spring

Sprs. : Springs

Sq. : Square

Sr. : Senior

Sr: strontium

Sri L. : Sri Lanka

SS., ss. : Saints

SS: Steamship

St. Pk. : State Park

St., st. : Saint ( Sankt, Sint); state; street

St.Kitts: Saint Kitts and Nevis

St.P.&M. : Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Sta. : Saint ( Santa)

Staffs. : Staffordshire

states. : statesman

statis. : statistician, statistics

Ste. : Saint (French Sainte)

Str., str. : strait

Strs. : Straits

Sud. : Sudan, Sudanese

Suff. : Suffolk

Sum. : Sumatra

Sur., Suri. : Suriname

surg. : surgery, surgeon

svcs. : services

SW: southwest

Swaz. : Swaziland

Swed. : Sweden, Swedish

Switz. : Switzerland

Syr. : Syria, Syrian

 

T

 

Ta: tantalum

Tai. : Taiwan, Taiwanese

Tajik. : Tajikistan

Tan., or Tanz. : Tanzania, Tanzanian

tan: tangent

Tanz. : Tanzania

Tas. : Tasmania, Tasmanian

Tb: terbium

Tc: technetium

Te: tellurium

teacher tr. : teacher training

tech. : technology, technological

Tenn. : Tennessee

Terr. : Territory; Terrace

terr. : territory, territorial

Terrs. : Territories

Tex. : Texas

Th: thorium

Thai. : Thailand, Thai

thea. : theatre, theatrical

theol. : theology, theologian, theological

Ti: titanium

Tib. : Tibet, Tibetan

Tl: thallium

Tm: thulium

Tpk. : Turnpike

Tr. and Tob. : Trinidad and Tobago

Tr.Terr.Pac.Is. : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

trag. : tragedy, tragedian

trans. : translated; translation; translator(s)

transp. : transportation

trib. : tributary

trig. : trigonometry

Trin./Tob. : Trinidad and Tobago

Trin. : Trinidad

Tun. : Tunisia, Tunisian

Tur. : Turkey, Turkish

Turkm. : Turkmenistan

Tuv. : Tuvalu, Tuvaluan

twp. : township

typog. : typography

 

U

 

U: uranium

U.A.E. : United Arab Emirates

U.K. : United Kingdom

U.S. : United States

U.S.A. : United States of America

U.S.S.R. : Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Ugan. : Uganda, Ugandan

Ukr. : Ukraine

UN: United Nations

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNICEF: United Nations Children's Fund

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Univ., univ. : university

UPU: Universal Postal Union

Uru., Urug. : Uruguay, Uruguayan

USGPO: United States Government Printing Office

USS: United States Ship

Uzbek. : Uzbekistan

 

V

 

V: vanadium

v. : versus

Va. : Virginia

Va. : Virginia

val. : valley

Van. : Vanuatu

var. : variant

Venez. : Venezuela, Venezuelan

vet. : veterinarian, veterinary

Vic. : Victoria

vice adm. : vice admiral

vice pres. : vice president

Viet. : Vietnam, Vietnamese

vil. : vilayet

Vinc./G. : Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Vir.Is. : Virgin Islands

viz. : namely (Latin videlicet)

voc. : vocational

Vol. : Volcano

vol. : volume(s)

Vt. : Vermont

 

W

 

W: west; tungsten (wolfram)

W. : West, Western

w. : wife

W.Af. : West Africa, West African

W.Aus., W.Austr. : Western Australia

W.Ger. : West Germany

W.Glam. : West Glamorgan

W.I. : West Indies

W.Mids. : West Midlands

W.Sam., W.Samoa: Western Samoa, Western Samoan

W.Susx. : West Sussex

W.Va. : West Virginia

W.W. : world war

W.Yorks. : West Yorkshire

Warw. : Warwickshire

Wash. : Washington

WHO: World Health Organization

Wilts. : Wiltshire

Wis. : Wisconsin

WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization

WMO: World Meteorological Organization

writ. : writer

WTO: World Trade Organization

Wyo. : Wyoming

 

X

 

Xe: xenon

 

Y

 

Y: yttrium

Yb: ytterbium

Yem. : Yemen, Yemeni

Yugos. : Yugoslavia, Yugoslavian

 

Z

 

Zamb. : Zambia

Zimb. : Zimbabwe, Zimbabwean

Zn: zinc

zool. : zoology, zoologist, zoological

Zor. : Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrian

Zr: zirconium